Elevated ground-level ozone (O3) pollution can adversely affect plants and inhibit plant growth and productivity, threatening food security and ecological health. It is therefore essential to develop measures to protect plants against O3-induced adverse effects. Here we summarize the current status of phytoprotection against O3-induced adverse effects and consider recent scientific and engineering advances, to provide a novel perspective for maximizing plant health while reducing environmental/ecological risks in an O3-polluted world. We suggest that nanoscience and nanotechnology can provide a new dimension in the protection of plants against O3-induced adverse effects, and recommend that new studies are based upon a green chemistry perspective.
Ozone (O3) is a natural component of the atmosphere. It occurs in the stratosphere, where it protects biota against ultraviolet radiation, but also in the lower troposphere, where it can directly harm biota. Because of its (i) high toxicological potential for biota, (ii) high reactivity and molecular instability, and (iii) difficult differentiation from other reactive oxygen species, O3 challenges scientists in a continuing effort to develop methods for its monitoring. We present here the operation principles of the most used techniques, along with some new technological developments for atmospheric O3 monitoring, with emphasis upon near surface. Huge amounts of scientific data have been produced thanks to progresses in O3 monitoring technologies. However, it remains a challenge to further develop reliable methods with rapid response and high sensitivity to ambient O3, which will also be free from the disadvantages of the current technologies.